Taylor & Francis Newsroom

, Oxford.

Breastfeeding: do celebrity ambassadors help the ordinary woman?

Breasts are the strongest symbol of female sexuality and are abundant in the media, on magazines, in adverts and in film. Celebrity breasts are depicted as objects of sexual desire and as a model for everyday women to aspire to. Broadcast images of breastfeeding however are scarce and elicit controversy and even revulsion. In Feminist Media Studies, Spring-Serenity Duvall analyses celebrity depictions of breastfeeding, the ensuing debates, and the implications for motherhood and sexuality.

Angelina Jolie and Salma Hayek, powerful humanitarians with a focus on female and child health have recently appeared in public breastfeeding: Hayek boldly fed an African mother’s malnourished baby, and Jolie allowed herself to be photographed breastfeeding at home. Both apparently spontaneous, but more likely manufactured political statements, intended to tackle the difficult politics of public breastfeeding. The ensuing controversy criticised Hayek for confusing racial boundaries, undermining the birth mother and furthermore, for feeding her own child beyond 12 months. This was judged to be a disgusting habit, damaging to the sexuality of the child, and in ironic contrast to the recommended 2 year feeding period for the African birth mother unable to feed. A jealous public wanting their icon returned to her rightful place as busty sex symbol?

Celebrity breastfeeding may now become a more commonplace sight as high profile individuals do their bit for the celebration of breastfeeding and women as sexy and maternal beings. If you have a perfect body, designer clothes and a make-up artist to create a vision of maternal perfection, it’s ok. Could this risk a battle for average mothers against even more fervent social stigma of breastfeeding as unsightly and distasteful.

Jolie has traversed from sex symbol to global activist, campaigning for human rights, whilst simultaneously managing to find time to breastfeed her child. Duvall hails her as “the ideal modern woman who is capable of not only having it all, but being it all”. By revealing her purportedly casual private moment, has she eased the conflict of women as sexual being and mother, or set the ordinary woman an unattainable ideal?

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About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Senior Marketing Executive, Arts & Humanities Journals
email: jodie.bell@tandf.co.uk

, Oxford.

Laughter is the best medicine? The emotional appeal of stand-up comedy

Comics taking to the stage at the Edinburgh Fringe this week should take note: how much of a hit they are with their audiences won’t be down to just their jokes. As Dr Tim Miles from the University of Surrey has discovered, the link between humour and emotion plays a large part in how well an audience connects with a comedian, and vice versa.

Writing in the journal Comedy Studies, Dr Miles explains: “Clearly there is some relationship between humour and emotion, as the states we associate with laughter are usually emotional ones (joy, pleasure, nervousness, a desire to integrate); but the exact nature of this relationship seems difficult to establish.”

Commenting on his study Dr Miles states, “Comedy has often been seen to be a bit frivolous, but it's actually something really important. Research shows that we laugh not so much because something is objectively funny, but because we want people to like us, or we want to feel part of a group that's laughing - it's all about making connections. My work looking at comedians and comedy audiences has shown how live stand-up comedy fulfils a need for feelings of truth, trust, empathy and intimacy between people, which is really important in a society where many people often complain about feeling isolated.”

As part of his research, Miles analysed dozens of questionnaires and interviews with both audience members and comedians, including Russell Brand and Robin Williams. What he discovered was a strong emphasis on ‘emotional experience’ for both stand-up comedians and audience members. Audiences and comedians were connected by bonds of ‘admiration’ and ‘empathy’ and what he calls ‘the paradox of identification’: identifying with the humour or observations made by a comic, but not being able to identify with them in terms of seeing themselves in their place on the stage. 

Miles also observed ‘a complex symbiotic relationship between the stand-up comedian and their audience in relation to the body, and well-being – with a relationship that is, in some ways, similar to a doctor and patient’. Indeed, some comedians felt they offered a ‘therapeutic service, or some sort of drug’; references to medicine, therapy and ‘feeling better’ were made by audience members too.

Miles concludes that stand-up comedy is a ‘performance’ like any other, so emotional experiences like identification, interaction, empathy, mutual therapy, well-being and a need for recognition all play an important part. He also points to recent research that suggests audiences ‘perform’ too: their brains enter ‘laughter mode whenever there is an expectation of laughter’. At least that’s what the performers at this year’s Fringe will be hoping as they try to connect with their audiences.

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About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Senior Marketing Executive, Arts & Humanities Journals
email: jodie.bell@tandf.co.uk

, Philadelphia.

Why are Teens Using Electronic Cigarettes?

'The Social Norms and Beliefs of Teenage Male Electronic Cigarette Use', a research study published in Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, delves into the social norms and beliefs of teenage male electronic cigarette users. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated inhalation devices that provide warm, vaporized nicotine to users without the inconvenience of tobacco smoke. Often marketed as a 'healthier alternative, e-cigarettes have filled shelves of convenience stores and have been used much more frequently in public spaces since their inception in late 2011. 

“Much of our past research has been conducted on tobacco use among disparate populations, in particular African American males,” said Dr. Ronald Peters and Dr. Angela Meshack in a joint statement. “The present research is an extension of our previous work and began after getting anecdotal evidence from students with whom we work. They shared that they were beginning to use electronic cigarettes because they were novel and had high social approval among their peers.” 

To conduct the research, a sample of 47 males ages 15-17 years participated in focus groups. Those who had used an e-cigarette in the previous 30 days were identified as 'e-cigarette users'. Four open-ended questions were asked to identify participants' subjective norms and beliefs related to e-cigarette use:

Why do youth use electronic cigarettes?
Where are places that you use electronic cigarettes?
What do your friends think about electronic cigarettes?
Why are electronic cigarettes so popular?

The focus groups identified several norms about teenage e-cigarette use among African American males. The primary reasons these teens admitted to using e-cigarettes were expeditious consumption and easy concealment, high social approval among peers, beliefs that e-cigarettes are healthier, as well as more aesthetically pleasing compared to tobacco cigarettes, and a safe high. The researchers quote one respondent’s belief in the results section: “It is healthier than smoking a cigarette because cigarettes got all those chemicals in the [expletive].” Another participant mentioned his reason for using, “Because you can hit it and put it in your pocket quick and not be caught. If there are no teachers around, you don't have to take the time to light it up.”  Participants admitted using their e-cigarettes everywhere – both at school and at home.      

“The data uncovered in this research offer potential directions for larger qualitative and quantitative research studies related to e-cigarette use among youth”, explained the researchers. “We hope with future research to determine if e-cigarette use may serve as a gateway to other drugs just as traditional tobacco cigarettes have been identified and if the user experiences higher euphoric effects.”

FREE ACCESS ARTICLE
The Social Norms and Beliefs of Teenage Male Electronic Cigarette Use
Ronald J. Peters Jr., Angela Meshack, Mi-Ting Lin, Mandy Hill, and Susan Abughosh
Read this article online.  Go to www.tandfonline.com/WESA and view the Journal News box.

About Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
www.tandfonline.com/WESA

The Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse presents rigorous new studies and research on ethnicity and cultural variation in alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and abuse. The research is drawn from many disciplines and interdisciplinary areas in the social and behavioral sciences and helping professions.
Volume 13, 2014  •   Print ISSN: 1533-2640  •   Online ISSN: 1533-2659  •   4 issues per year

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About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
James Fischer, Marketing Associate, Journals
Email: james.fischer@taylorandfrancis.com

, Philadelphia.

Top Water Saving Tips for American Households

Curbing water use in American households could be as easy as making simple changes to daily routines and installing a few water-efficient appliances, a recent study suggests.

With many water suppliers expecting to face water availability problems in the 21st century, water conservation offers a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to address these challenges as opposed to capturing, transporting, and treating new supplies.

Co-authored by Benjamin D. Inskeep and Shahzeen Z. Attari, “The Water Short List: The Most Effective Action U.S. Households Can Take to Curb Water Use,” explores the top five most effective water saving solutions.

Among these actions are reducing shower times and toilet flushes, doing only full loads of laundry, and installing WaterSense and ENERGY STAR labeled products.

“We find that the average household can reduce their indoor water use by up to 45% (70 gallons per household per day),” Attari said.

The results of the study are presented throughout the article in an easy-to-use, ranked water short list.

The water short list identifies effective actions households can take to decrease water use and increase the sustainability of public water supply systems.

For more information please contact:
Carolan DiFiore,
Science and Technology Journals Marketing Assistant
Email: Carolan.difiore@taylorandfrancis.com

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, Oxford.

Good news for couch potatoes: 3D TV may be the victim of negative preconceptions

Although it is yet to truly become a phenomenon, the debate about viewer experience with 3D TV is far from over. But things may be looking up for the technology, announces a new study investigating user experience of stereoscopic 3D TV recently published in Ergonomics.

An academic from Newcastle University, UK, has led a lab-based research, involving 433 viewers of ages from 4 to 82 years, in which participants were asked to watch Toy Story in either 2D or 3D (S3D) and report on their viewing experience. The objective of the study was to investigate visual discomfort in relation to 3D display technologies, as well as to determine the impact of people’s preconceptions on their experience of 3D TV. It’s no secret that the format hasn’t taken off in the way many had anticipated.

Research participants were asked to rate their viewing experience according to a number of parameters and soon it emerged that those watching three-dimensional content had a significantly higher incidence of adverse effects than their 2D counterparts. The team suspected that this might partly reflect a ‘nocebo effect’ – ‘an intrinsically harmless substance or procedure causing adverse effects due to negative expectations’. To shed light on the matter, the team devised a harmless ploy; two-dimensional content was shown to a number of viewers expecting to watch a 3D movie, and results were then compared with those from the 2D group. The outcome corroborated the researchers’ suspicions, confirming that, when it comes to 3D TV, some people approach it with a jaundiced eye.

This fascinating new study confirms watching S3D television can cause discomfort to a small number of viewers, but why this is remains unclear. "When cinema was first introduced, people found that very disturbing, and yet nowadays we all watch it happily," says Jenny Read, one of the authors of this research. "There is a kind of circular effect - as the technology gets better, people will use it more." 

The future may be looking brighter for S3D TV then!

About Ergonomics and the IEHF

Ergonomics, also known as human factors, is the scientific discipline that seeks to understand and improve human interactions with products, equipment, environments and systems.  The scientific journal Ergonomics is an international multi-disciplinary refereed publication, with a 50 year tradition of disseminating high quality research.

The Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors (www.iehf.org), founded in 1949, is the professional body for researchers and practitioners in the field of ergonomics, with an international membership in excess of 1700.  Its aim is to promote the awareness, education and application of ergonomics in industry, commerce, public sector and government.

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* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00140139.2014.914581

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.  From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

Luke Antieul – Marketing Executive, Engineering Journals, Taylor & Francis Group.
Email: luke.antieul@tandf.co.uk
Tel: +44 (0)20 7551 9777

, Philadelphia.

New Research Describes Trends in Substance Use among High School Athletes and Warns about an Increase of Prescription Pain Medication Usage

Newly published research from Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse reports on the current trends of substance use by high school student athletes and notes an increase in the use of prescription pain medications among football players.

In the United States, alcohol and marijuana use continue to threaten the collective health of American teenagers. At least half of the students enrolled in U.S. high schools consume alcohol.  Furthermore, while the term “hard drug” often applies to illicit substances such as cocaine or LSD, it also now pertains to prescription pain relievers or analgesics (e.g. methadone, opium, morphine, and codeine). “The study seeks to account for multiple determinants of substance use before attempting to draw substantive conclusions about sport-specific patterns,” writes author of the study, Bryan E. Denham.

For the research, Denham cross-tabulated quantitative data collected from the answers of 2,273 high school seniors who participated in the 2009 Monitoring the Future survey, sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and conducted at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. This study divided the data based on gender and included two categorical factors—race and competitive sports participation.

Male participants in the following sports were interviewed: baseball, basketball, football, soccer, swimming and diving, and track and field. 

Female participants in the following sports were interviewed: softball, basketball, soccer, swimming and diving, track and field, and volleyball.

The results found common trends, some of which included: student athletes generally partake in illicit substance use more frequently than non-competitors, potentially due to assimilation with their peer groups. 

Among all of the sports studied, football players use the most illegal substances. Males consume more illegal substances than females. White students use substances more than African American and Hispanic classmates. Most revealing, 12 percent of males and 8 percent of females reported using analgesics in the past year, an increase from previous surveys. 

"I've studied the use of performance-enhancing substances in sports for about 15 years, and this study extended that line of research to mind-altering substances,” says Denham. “Alcohol has always been available, as has marijuana, but young people also may look to stronger drugs for euphoric effects. If prescription pain relievers are over-prescribed in certain regions, their use may trickle down to adolescents. Use of narcotic pain relievers may become a habit with some adolescent athletes."

About the Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
www.tandfonline.com/WCAS

The Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse addresses the treatment of substance abuse in all ages of children. With the growing magnitude of the problem of substance abuse among children and youth, this is an essential forum for the dissemination of descriptive or investigative efforts with this population. The journal serves as a vehicle for communication and dissemination of information to the many practitioners and researchers working with these young people.

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About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
James Fischer, Marketing Associate, Journals
Email: james.fischer@taylorandfrancis.com

, Oxford.

End-of-Life Conversations Aren’t Just About Health Care

Discussing end-of-life choices with family members in a way that pays attention to how they perceive themselves and maintains your relationship with them may be more important than actually reaching decisions, according to a study recently published in Communication Monographs, a journal of the National Communication Association.

The reason is that reassuring people about shared commitment to a relationship increases their feelings of satisfaction about the conversation. And that satisfaction may have a positive impact on the health choices that are made later, in part because the person’s positive emotional response to the conversation helps them better process and remember information.

“The way an end-of-life discussion is negotiated has the potential to strengthen or undermine relationships,” says Allison M. Scott, Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Kentucky and lead author of the study. “Family communication holds a great deal of potential for improving end-of-life health care, but this potential lies in the quality of the discussions.”

At the heart of the new study is the idea that people may have more than one purpose for a conversation, including task, identity, and relational goals. In an end-of-life conversation with a parent, for example, the primary task may be to share information on options, the identity goal may be to preserve the parent’s feeling of independence, and the relational goal may be to maintain a high level of trust.

Achieving an end-of-life conversation’s goals can minimize the hurt feelings and relationship damage that can result from talking about such an emotionally charged topic. When people have positive communication experiences and negative outcomes are avoided, they’re more likely to engage in subsequent conversations about a topic.

“A common refrain among end-of-life researchers and practitioners is that families should ‘be open,’” said John P. Caughlin, Acting Head of the Department of Communication at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and one of the study’s authors. “But our findings demonstrate that having a successful end-of-life discussion is not just about being open, and that some ways of being open are better than others.”

Openness when discussing specific health care options is beneficial, as is working to achieve other conversational goals in addition to simply sharing information. At the same time, being so open that the other person’s feelings are hurt is counter-productive.

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About the National Communication Association

The National Communication Association (NCA) advances Communication as the discipline that studies all forms, modes, media, and consequences of communication through humanistic, social scientific, and aesthetic inquiry. NCA serves the scholars, teachers, and practitioners who are its members by enabling and supporting their professional interests in research and teaching. Dedicated to fostering and promoting free and ethical communication, NCA promotes the widespread appreciation of the importance of communication in public and private life, the application of competent communication to improve the quality of human life and relationships, and the use of knowledge about communication to solve human problems.

For more information, visit natcom.org, follow us on Twitter at @natcomm, and find us on Facebook at www.facebook.com/NationalCommunicationAssociation.

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.   From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.  For more information please contact:

Marita Eleftheriadou, Marketing Co-ordinator, Journals

email: Marita.Eleftheriadou@tandf.co.uk

, Oxford.

Taylor & Francis and the British Veterinary Nursing Association (BVNA) launch new publishing partnership

Taylor & Francis is delighted to announce a new publishing partnership with the British Veterinary Nursing Association (BVNA) from 2015, for the Veterinary Nursing Journal.

Veterinary Nursing Journal (VNJ) contains clinical articles, practice management features, news and reports pertinent to today’s veterinary nurse.

Kirstie Shield, President of the British Veterinary Nursing Association said, "BVNA Council are delighted to announce our publishing collaboration with Taylor and Francis. The BVNAs highly valued membership journal the Veterinary Nursing Journal will enjoy continued success and ongoing commitment to future development with the support and experience of our new publishers and colleagues, Taylor and Francis."

Rod Cookson, Editorial Director for Earth, Biological and Environmental Science Journals at Taylor & Francis said, “Taylor & Francis is delighted to be collaborating with the British Veterinary Nursing Association to publish Veterinary Nursing Journal. Supported by our long experience of working in the Veterinary Sciences, we look forward to the journal going from strength to strength in the coming years.”

Through the publishing partnership, VNJ will benefit from the Taylor & Francis Online platform, with functionality such as forward citation linking and advanced online publication of articles ahead of the print edition.

About the British Veterinary Nursing Association

The BVNA was formed in 1965 and is the only national body who solely represents veterinary nurses. The BVNA provides the following benefits to its members, in addition to the Veterinary Nursing Journal:

• Advises and represents veterinary nursing interests
• Supports veterinary nurses and practice staff with legal advice and support
• Discounts on CPD and books
• Regional meetings
• Bursaries.

For further information, visit the website www.bvna.org.uk or follow the BVNA on Twitter @bvnauk

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* Read the full article online:TVNJ

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.   From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Matt Peck
Taylor & Francis Journals
Email: Matthew.Peck@tandf.co.uk

, Oxford.

Say goodbye to Naomi, Kate and Claudia. Enter ‘Ava’.

Forget top models. With haute couture turning to virtual reality, holographic versions of the world’s most in-demand models are now striding down the catwalks alongside their human counterparts. But does this mean temperamental models are on their way out?  New research has been revealed which shows it could be the end of the fashion world as we know it.

A study published in the International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education investigates the production of a realistic virtual human for animation and reveals that avatars are the way forward in a number of sectors, including fashion.

Led by two scientists at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK, the research illustrates the ‘workflow for producing and animating a realistic virtual human …using infrared depth sensing technology’.  Although the study is part of a project aimed at ‘recording the motion of ballet dancers for both performance analysis and corrective coaching’ explain the authors, the techniques used to produce the avatar could have applications within a range of disciplines, including performing arts, sports and fashion.  Several investigative methods were used to bring the avatar to life; from an inertial motion capture suit fitted with sensors recording the movements of a dancer, to a BVH (Biovision Hierarchy) file providing information on skeleton hierarchy.  An infrared 3D body scanner, ordinarily employed in the dress making industry for the purpose of garment design and sizing standards development, was also utilised to translate the measurements of a scanned human subject onto a virtual character mesh. After a good deal of rigging and data processing, life was successfully breathed into the avatar by 3D modelling and animation software.

No doubt this exciting new study prepares the grounds for future investigations, and the Manchester team are already looking to take things further in the virtual environment and develop even more realistic and accurate avatars. While the focus of their research remains on dance and the development of analysis tools for corrective training, they are keen to emphasise the interdisciplinary application of their finding. With fashion design being one of the fields of operation, is the tide turning against supermodels now?

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About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information, please contact:

Vicki Cottrell, Taylor & Francis Group

Email: vicki.cottrell@tandf.co.uk

, Oxford.

Could tailored golf balls improve putting performance?

Elements such as trip wires, dimples and sand-grain roughness on the surface of a body have been shown to be effective in reducing drag on objects such as golf balls, which helps them fly farther.

Dimples make up the small round indentations on the golf ball. They energize the flow and induce turbulence in the layer of air next to the ball. This turbulent boundary layer can reduce drag.

The study, published in Journal of Turbulence, provides new insights into how the momentum transport is affected by the dimples and how multiple dimple rows interact to generate near wall turbulence.

Co-author Nikolaos Beratlis explains: “To most golfers the fact that a golf ball with a roughened surface can give you 150 yards more than a perfectly smooth one sounds like a paradox.” He adds: “This additional momentum that dimples give keeps the flow attached to the surface longer reducing the pressure difference between the front and back of the golf ball, thus resulting in less drag."

Results showed that the presence of the dimples triggers instabilities that cause significant momentum transport.

“These results provide guidelines for more precise separation control, which will help us tailor golf balls to individual golfers for best performance,” Nikolaos Beratlis added.

The researchers used a series of direct numerical simulations of the flow past a flat plate with two and eight rows of dimples in a staggered arrangement.

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* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14685248.2014.918270

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information, please contact:

Vicki Cottrell, Taylor & Francis Group

Email: vicki.cottrell@tandf.co.uk