Taylor & Francis Newsroom

, Oxford.

Britain’s wealth lies in its people

A decade ago a World Bank report asked ‘Where is the Wealth of Nations?’ New calculations published in Scandinavian Economic History Review show that for Britain, the answer is undoubtedly in its people.

In his paper, Dr Jan Kunnas from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, calculates that Britain’s human capital has grown by a multiple of 112 over the past 250 years. The main drivers of this phenomenal growth have been the growth in the workforce and the growth in wages. In the same period, from 1760 to 2009 human capital per worker and per capita grew 13-fold. Kunnas defines human capital as the knowledge and skills embodied in individuals. He measures it by the discounted earnings the population is expected to earn during their time in the labour force.

So what has driven this growth? As real wages remained more or less constant in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the growth of the workforce was initially the main driver of the change in human capital. The period after the Second World War witnessed fast growth in wages, while the growth of the workforce stagnated, not to be resumed until after 1983. In the long run, the main source of human capital growth has been the growth in real wages. This can also be interpreted as the quantity of labour driving labour input up to 1950 and then labour quality taking over. The average time that individuals remain in the workforce has had a minimal effect on the human capital; people are living longer, but they are also retiring earlier, and the workforce is growing older.

Just as it has been for the past 250 years, Britain’s future wealth lies in its people. Based upon his research, Kunnas suggests that “the major impacts of Brexit will be in: 1) how it affects Britain’s education system that maintains and build up its human capital, and 2) how it affects Britain’s attractiveness to well-educated immigrants.”

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Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life. As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, e-books and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.  From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

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Rhian Evans, Marketing Executive
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, Philadelphia.

Properly aimed headlights increase driving safety

New data reveals that correctly aiming headlights has a significant positive influence on nighttime driving safety. Dr. John Bullough’s Guest Editorial, “Vehicle Headlights: Aiming for Better Driving Safety,” appeared in LEUKOS: The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

Earlier this year, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) published results of vehicle headlight evaluations. The results—which showed that very few headlight systems were rated as acceptable or good—were widely reported in the mass media (including USA Today, NPR, Consumer Reports, and dozens of others). The cause of the poor ratings was not addressed in the IIHS report or in the media coverage that followed.

Using the data and protocols provided by the IIHS, Dr. John Bullough, Director of Transportation and Safety Lighting Programs at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Lighting Research Center, performed some post-hoc analyses of the data. He shows in his editorial that demerit scores tended to be better when headlights were aimed properly and worse when the headlights were aimed either too high or too low. Though not all of the variation in headlight performance can be attributed to aiming, it was a meaningful factor. The number of systems rated as acceptable or good would have doubled if they had been correctly aimed. It may not be obvious to consumers that having their headlights properly aimed on a regular basis can influence nighttime driving safety. Properly aimed headlights influence safety by improving driver visibility and minimizing glare to oncoming vehicles.

This research was published by the IES (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America) journal, LEUKOS. The IES is the recognized technical authority on illumination. For over 100 years; its objective has been to communicate information on all aspects of good lighting practice to its members, to the lighting community, and to consumers, through a variety of programs, publications, and services.

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About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

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Daniel Yesilonis
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, Oxford.

Online Braggers Don’t Get Dates

As online dating has become a widely accepted way to attract possible romantic partners, scholars have been taking a closer look at the practice. What makes an online dater successful? Do the same factors that make face-to-face relationships successful also apply in the online dating world?

A new study recently published in the National Communication Association’s journal Communication Monographs asks how specific types of content in online dating profiles affect viewers’ impressions of the profile owner and their intentions to act on what they’ve seen by contacting the profile owner for a date.

When it comes to online dating, people are often told to highlight their best qualities. They emphasize their most favorable physical characteristics and personality traits. And, according to past research, providing corroborating evidence for the information on a profile can increase trust. To find out whether these two practices made online daters successful, Crystal D. Wotipka and Andrew C. High of The University of Iowa asked 316 online daters what they thought of particular profiles.

Participants were presented with one of four sample online dating profiles that exhibited different types of content development by the profile “owner.” Wotipka and High looked specifically at the effects of two concepts: selective-self presentation and warranting. Selective self-presentation is people’s ability to highlight the most flattering information to others. In the context of online dating, where the goal is to attract a partner, people are motivated to present a lot of positive information about themselves while minimizing negative information—or in other words, to brag a little. People can “warrant” their online dating profiles, explain the authors, by providing access to corroborating sites—for example, a link to a professional biography page or the name of a blog to which they regularly contribute.

The authors examined how online dating profiles that contain high or low selective self-presentation and high or low warranting align with impressions of social attraction and trust from profile viewers. Wotipka and High also analyzed whether impressions of trust and social attraction influenced a profile viewer’s intention to contact and date the profile owner.

The authors found viewers judged people who were perceived as overly bragging about themselves, their looks, or their accomplishments as less trustworthy and less socially attractive, thereby lessening viewer’s intentions to date or contact those profile owners.

To present profiles that had high warranting value, the authors included links to external sources of information in the manipulated profiles that could corroborate information, such as a link to a professional biography page maintained by the profile creator’s employer. This strategy helped viewers to verify content in a profile, which ultimately increased trust in the information on the profile, but only when people bragged less.

When combined, low selective self-presentation and high warranting made people “seem honest as well as humble and approachable,” wrote the authors. However, perhaps one of the most interesting findings in the study is that profiles exhibiting both high self-selective presentation and high warranting were perceived as arrogant or immodest, which lessened viewers’ intention to contact them. In other words, braggers don’t get dates.

“Daters should strive to present themselves as humble, ‘real’ people,” explain the authors, especially if their goal is to establish a long-term relationship based on trust.

To arrange an interview with the researchers, contact Wendy Fernando at 202-534-1107 or wfernando@natcom.org

About the National Communication Association
The National Communication Association (NCA) advances Communication as the discipline that studies all forms, modes, media, and consequences of communication through humanistic, social scientific, and aesthetic inquiry. NCA serves the scholars, teachers, and practitioners who are its members by enabling and supporting their professional interests in research and teaching. Dedicated to fostering and promoting free and ethical communication, NCA promotes the widespread appreciation of the importance of communication in public and private life, the application of competent communication to improve the quality of human life and relationships, and the use of knowledge about communication to solve human problems.

For more information, visit natcom.org, follow us on Twitter at @natcomm, and find us on Facebook at www.facebook.com/NationalCommunicationAssociation

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Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

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Claire Spence, Marketing Coordinator, Arts & Humanities
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, Philadelphia.

Is there a Future for Advertisers?

"There is little question that advertising or whatever we’re going to call the field in the future will change. The signs are too clear to ignore."

Automation. Big data. Mobility. Transparency. As the world of mass advertising rapidly shifts to meet individual consumer needs and wants, advertising experts are asking, will it sustain itself? What is the future of advertising? Northwestern University professor, Dr. Don Schultz, writes a compelling, precinct article, titled, The Future of Advertising (or Whatever We’re Going to Call It),” published in the Journal of Advertising, proposes three possible scenarios. It is a must read for advertising practitioners and consumers alike.

Schultz writes, There is little question that advertising or whatever we’re going to call the field in the future will change. The signs are too clear to ignore. Will that change come based on proactive research on the future or will we continue to simply fill the gaps in what is perceived to be present knowledge? Will we continue to follow the same pathways and create the same footprints of those who have gone before us or will we set off on a new path, embracing change and acknowledging that new approaches are needed? That, to me, is the question of the future of advertising.”

Watch the video interview with Dr. Don Schultz here. Read the full article here.

The Journal of Advertising is the premier academic publication covering significant intellectual development pertaining to advertising theories and their relationship with practice.

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Katherine Madonna
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, Oxford.

3 in 10 women able to conceive naturally after infertility treatment

Women who have IVF/ICSI infertility treatments have a 29% chance of conceiving naturally within six years of the cessation of treatments. These are the findings of an Internet survey conducted by a group of gynaecologists presented in the journal Human Fertility.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence estimates that one in seven couples in the United Kingdom are affected by infertility, with so-called ‘assisted reproductive technologies’ (ARTs) such as IVF and ICSI being widely employed. These treatments are emotionally and financially demanding, and not all couples will achieve a baby through these methods.

Research into conception rates after these treatments – whether successful or unsuccessful – has been limited, but the authors hope that their findings will be useful for counselling and reassuring women about their chances of natural conception after infertility treatment.

The researchers contacted users of an independent fertility website asking members who had received IVF/ICSI treatments to participate in their anonymous survey. From the 403 applicable responses (from a total of 484 responses), they found that of the 96 respondents who did not conceive through the course of the treatments, 34 subsequently conceived, leading to 30 live births. Of the 307 who conceived during the treatments, 84 also conceived post-treatment.

Lead author Samuel Marcus said “regardless of the outcome of IVF and ICSI treatments – whether the patients conceived or not – there is about a 30% likelihood of conceiving over a 6 year period.”

The authors do acknowledge some limitations in their paper, specifically that it relied on self-reporting, and that a selection bias may have been caused by pregnant couples being more willing to respond than disappointed couples.

In the study, the authors found that 87% of the spontaneous conceptions occurred within two years of finishing the infertility treatments, and over the six-year period following treatments 22% delivered a live baby. Whilst many couples may see treatments as IVF as a ‘last resort’ the researchers hope that their findings may offer hope to those in this unfortunate position.

Professor Allan Pacey, Editor in Chief of Human Fertility said “This is really useful information that doctors can use to counsel patients about their chances of pregnancy after undergoing assisted conception. It certainly suggests that there remains a reasonable chance of spontaneous pregnancy after IVF or ICSI has been attempted.”

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Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

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Emma Cianchi, Marketing Executive, Journals
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, Oxford.

Recommendation for better counseling access to be offered to women preferring cesarean births

A study involving over 6,500 pregnant women from 6 countries in northern Europe highlights a clear need for appropriate support and advice when cesarean section (c-section) is elected for non-medical reasons, and for the accurate communication of the risk and benefits of c-section birth, suggests new research published in the Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology.

The study found that women who have a fear of childbirth, depression, history of abuse, or a previous negative birth experience are more likely to wish to have their babies by cesarean section (C-section).

While C-section can be a lifesaving procedure when labor complications arise, C-sections that are not medically necessary can put mothers and babies at risk of severe complications (eg, infection, blood clots) and increase healthcare costs. Despite these risks, over the last few decades the rate of elective C-section for non-medical reasons has been rising.

To investigate the reasons behind women’s preference for C-section, Dr Elsa-Lena Ryding from the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and colleagues recruited 6549 women from routine antenatal care in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. In mid-pregnancy (about 24 weeks), women were asked about their preferred method of giving birth. They also completed a questionnaire about basic sociodemographic information and their level of childbirth fear, depression, history of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and experience of previous childbirth.

C-section was preferred by 113 (3.5%) women expecting their first baby and 291 (8.7%) women who had given birth before. Women with symptoms of depression were more than twice as likely to opt for C-section than vaginal birth; whilst a preference for C-section was three times greater among women with a severe fear of child birth or who had undergone a previous negative birth experience. History of abuse and a previous C-section were also more common among women who reported a preference for birth by C-section.

Around three-quarters (286) of the 404 women who reported a preference for C-section in mid-pregnancy went on to have one, but most of these C-sections were performed for medical reasons according to hospital records.

The authors conclude by calling for better access to antenatal counseling to support women who may be choosing C-section for psychological reasons. However, they caution that because of wide differences in general health care these results cannot be generalized to other parts of the world.

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Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine. From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

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Elaine Roberts, Senior Marketing Executive
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, Oxford.

Food purchasing and social status perceptions

In a new study in Applied Economics, Palma et al seek to reveal consumer motivations behind willingness to pay for expensive foods versus valuation of food attributes. Could it be fashion, a bid for prestige or a statement of wealth and social standing? 

The research team conducted field experiments to see why we will hand over more hard earned cash for foods with better attributes. 201 participants entered a baseline sealed bid auction of lettuces with no information available. A second bidding round was conducted after half of participants were allowed a blind tasting, the other half after receiving labelling information (organic, conventional and hydroponically produced lettuces).   

Having studied the group demographics on income, employment, marital status, education and race, the team were able to establish latent class segmentation of the group based on kudos-seeking food buying behaviours. The largest segment, the Utilitarian Class paid least and focused on functionality of the product.  The other groups all displayed prestige seeking behaviours and were willing to pay more; Ambitious Shoppers who aspire to higher social status, Affluent Elitists and Prestige Lovers both of whom seek to differentiate from lower classes via expensive purchases.

The buying behaviours illustrate the efficacy of labelling to enable producers to boost product prices where information is provided to the consumer. However, current literature shows evidential links between diet quality and income, indicating reduced purchase capacity of lower income shoppers. Palma et al conclude, “While nutritional policies promote the consumption of high-quality healthy food products, the reality is that the cost of healthy and nutritious food may be too high for some consumers to bear, deeming health promotion policies ineffective. It is precisely that cost differential in food that has opened the door for food to become a symbol of social status.”

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Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life. As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, e-books and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.  From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

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, Oxford.

Tagging unlocks the secret lives of St Ives’ gulls

A newly published paper in Ringing & Migration, the journal of the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) Ringing Scheme, explains how state-of-the art GPS tags have unlocked the secrets of four herring gulls nesting on the rooftops of St Ives, Cornwall, a seaside resort where gulls can be unpopular with residents and visitors alike during the summer months. Two male and two female birds were captured and fitted with GPS backpack tags while they incubated their eggs on a cinema, supermarket and local restaurants. This allowed their movements to be tracked throughout the summer of 2014.

As many urban dwellers know, large gulls have increasingly been nesting and feeding in towns and cities in recent decades. This has brought them into conflict with many people, who dislike the noise and mess associated with gulls, not to mention the threat of having their ice creams and chips stolen. The results from the GPS tags revealed huge variation in the movements and feeding habits of the four individuals tracked, but showed that none of them spent much time in the streets of St Ives, suggesting they did not habitually feed on food waste or snatch ice creams. Instead, two birds were true “seagulls”, spending much of their time more than 30km out to sea, whereas the remaining two rarely went more than 1km from the shore. All birds visited farms close to St Ives, where their movements indicated that they apparently followed a plough or a harvester.

Peter Rock, lead author of the study said: “We have two populations of the large gulls in UK – the rural and the urban. We know a great deal about rural gulls, but because they have been under-studied, our knowledge of urban gulls is nowhere near as good as it should be. In view of the bad press surrounding urban gulls, it’s a situation that must change and this small study points the way.”

Dr Viola Ross-Smith of the BTO said: “This study demonstrates that gulls behave as individuals and there can be no one size fits all approach when it comes to managing their populations. It is vital that any decisions about gull conservation and management are based on the best scientific evidence available if they are to succeed.”

Although gulls appear to be thriving in urban areas, many species are in decline nationally, including the Herring Gull, which is on the Birds of Conservation Concern Red List. Future work will now build on this study, helping us to understand the success of urban gulls, the conservation needs of gulls breeding in rural colonies, and to come up with sustainable management strategies for co-existing with gulls as feathered friends, rather than fiends.

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About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life. As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

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Deirdre Kilbride
Marketing Executive, Taylor and Francis Journals
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, Philadelphia.

Examining health care intervention design: Lessons from the development of eight related malaria intervention studies

Rigorous evidence of ‘what works’ to improve health care is in demand, but methods for the development of interventions have not been scrutinized in the same ways as methods for evaluation. The article “Examining Intervention Design: Lessons from the Development of Eight Related Malaria Health Care Intervention Studies,” presents and examines intervention development processes of eight malaria health care interventions in East and West Africa. The article appears in Health Systems & Reform published by Taylor & Francis.

A case study approach was used to draw out experiences and insights from multidisciplinary teams who undertook to design and evaluate these studies. Four steps appeared necessary for intervention design: (1) definition of scope, with reference to evaluation possibilities; (2) research to inform design, including evidence and theory reviews and empirical formative research; (3) intervention design, including consideration and selection of approaches and development of activities and materials; (4) refining and finalizing the intervention, incorporating piloting and pretesting. Alongside these steps, projects produced theories, explicitly or implicitly, about (i) intended pathways of change and (ii) how their intervention would be implemented.

The paper concludes that the work required to design interventions that meet and contribute to current standards of evidence should not be underestimated. Furthermore, the process should be recognized not only as technical, but the result of micro and macro social, political and economic contexts, which should be acknowledged and documented in order to infer generalizability. Reporting of interventions should go beyond descriptions of final intervention components or techniques, to encompass the development process. The role that evaluation possibilities play in intervention design should be brought to the fore in debates over health care improvement.

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, Oxford.

Presenting great architecture and promoting sustainability: Channel 4’s Grand Designs

A new study in the journal Design and Culture explores how the programme Grand Designs presents architecture and domestic design to a non-specialist audience.

Peter Lloyd (University of Brighton) and Arlene Oak (University of Alberta) focus their study on two episodes of the programme, both of which feature homes made from straw bales. In their view, how Grand Designs and its presenter Kevin McCloud deal with sustainability, notions of expertise and the design process itself are what makes it a unique offering in a crowded television ‘property’ market.

Lloyd and Oak draw particular attention to the fact that Grand Designs both reflects and promotes the current desire for homes that are more ‘sustainable’ or ‘environmental’. They write: “Forms of eco-consciousness engage with other considerations that relate to the build (e.g. financial, structural, or aesthetic issues). Instead of a simplistic rendition of sustainability, the show depicts the intersection between environmentalist, (design) professional, and pragmatic concepts of eco-awareness. This means that Grand Designs offers the opportunity to explore how sustainability may actually be enacted in practice as a form of ‘ethical consumption’.”

In the case of the two straw-bale projects Lloyd and Oak study, the programme’s narratives are structured to present different views on sustainability. In the world of Grand Designs, sustainability can come from adopting new technologies, or, more commonly, from returning to the traditions of the past.

“Television offers the possibility of taking a critical look at the intersection between talk and design, without being beholden to the interests of specific practitioners,” they observe.

Much of Grand Designs’ success is due to the character and expertise of presenter Kevin McCloud. “He has significant power to influence the audience with his own ideas about what constitutes sustainability or eco-awareness, and to further frame himself within wider culture as an ‘expert’ and authoritative voice in issues pertaining to sustainability, design, and domestic architecture,” they observe.

The authors state, “We hope our paper encourages more researchers to use television and other media as data in looking critically at processes of design”.

As a television series introducing the public to design, McCloud ‘frames design practice as an essentially heroic and artistic activity, undertaken, as it is in these episodes, by uncompromising individuals’ – but this approach is not without its problems. As Lloyd and Oak note, framing people who take on such projects as ‘romantic idealists’ willing to put everything on the line, may be ‘out of kilter with more collaborative approaches to [current] creative practice’ – but it’s made for 15 years of engaging and informative viewing.

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Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

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