Taylor & Francis Newsroom

, Oxford.

IISS journal: US Secretary of Defense Ash Carter on US–Russia relations

IISS journal: US Secretary of Defense Ash Carter on US–Russia relations

‘The United States does not seek a new cold war with Russia, let alone a hot war.’

That is the message from US Secretary of Defense Ash Carter in the latest issue of Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, the journal of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). In the face of Russian actions that ‘undermine global security and erode an international order that has been of mutual benefit’, however, Carter lays out what he calls a ‘strong and balanced’ approach to the US–Russia relationship.

The article in Survival includes the Secretary of Defense’s personal reflections from a career spent working on defence issues involving the Soviet Union and Russia, during and after the Cold War. It outlines US policy on deterring Russia, while leaving open the possibility of engagement, and sets a course for US leadership within NATO. The article is free-to-view until 21 December 2016.

ABOUT SURVIVAL

Survival, the IISS journal, is one of the world’s leading forums for analysis and debate of international and strategic affairs. Shaped by its editors to be both timely and forward thinking, the journal encourages writers to challenge conventional wisdom and bring fresh, often controversial, perspectives to bear on the strategic issues of the moment. With a diverse range of authors, Survival aims to be scholarly in depth while vivid, well written and policy relevant in approach. Through commentary, analytical articles, case studies, forums, review essays, reviews and letters to the editor, the journal promotes lively, critical debate on issues of international politics and strategy.

CONTACT: press@iiss.org

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00396338.2016.1257180

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Press & Media Relations Manager
email: newsroom@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter: @tandfnewsroom

Introducing Press Pass: journalist access to all Taylor & Francis Journals. Contact us for more details. 

, Oxford.

Was Brexit an Act of Self-Protection?

The Brexit vote should be understood as ‘a form of social self-protection’ according to leading economist Ann Pettifor. Writing in the journal Globalizations, Pettifor has derided ‘the predatory nature of market fundamentalism’ in which self-regulating markets are left to govern themselves beyond the control of democratic regulations. Voting for Brexit, Pettifor argues, was a rejection of the ‘religion’ of the ‘dominant liberal finance narrative’ by the people that market fundamentalism has left behind. On 23 June 2016, 17 million British voters determined that Britain should leave the European Union. In doing so, they flagrantly ignored the advice of dozens of leading economists and major financial institutions. Pettifor argues that this mistrust in economic expertise has its roots in the experience of the Great Financial Crash of 2007. The financial crisis was a ‘self-inflicted wound’ on the economy, whose consequent deflationary policies ‘imposed substantial costs on the real, productive economy where millions expect to be employed, whilst both enriching and protecting the rentier sector from oversight, penalties, and punishment.’ The financial collapse took a terrible toll on the productive economy whilst title-holders of money were strengthened.

The economic policies and theories that led to the crash – which pursued increasingly globalized, autonomous, self-regulating markets in finance, trade, and labour – were precisely what British voters wanted to reject. Resentment towards stringently liberal economic policies goes back to regulatory changes made in the 1970s by the Treasury and the Bank of England. These changes ‘served the interests of financial markets at the expense of UK industry. Re-regulating the British economy in favour of finance and enriching the 1% while shrinking labour’s share of income resulted in rising inequality and lit a still smouldering fuse of popular resentment. Resentment made most explicit in the Brexit vote.’

Brexiteers blamed economists and their misguided ideologies for current problems affecting large swathes of the UK population. Repressed wages, diminished public services, rising housing costs and shortages, and insecure employment have all come about as an indirect consequence of the policies pushed by ‘the mainstream economic profession.’ 40 years of such policies have led to soaring debts and financial crises. Brexit voters are right to recognize that these dogmatic policies have been ‘deleterious to their economic interests.’

But whilst Pettifor believes that people should be critical of the prevailing economic doctrine, rejecting it through Brexit was not the right decision. ‘I fear Brexit’s consequences in energizing the Far Right both in Britain but also across both Europe and the US. I fear the break-up of the UK, and the political dominance of a small tribe of conservative “Little Englanders”. They will diminish this country’s great social, economic, and political achievements.’

Ann Pettifor is a director of the think-tank Policy Research in Macroeconomics (PRIME) and is a member of Jeremy Corbyn’s Labour Economic Advisory Committee.

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14747731.2016.1229953

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Press & Media Relations Manager
email: newsroom@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter: @tandfnewsroom

Introducing Press Pass: journalist access to all Taylor & Francis Journals. Contact us for more details. 

, Oxford.

Can Research Methods from Different Disciplines Work Together?

Can Research Methods from Different Disciplines Work Together?

A new article exploring how to make research methods from different disciplines work together has been published in Cultural Trends. The article’s recommendations are based on the experience of organizing an enormous multidisciplinary project, Dementia and Imagination. With an emphasis on multidisciplinary research growing in the academy and social policy alike, this new article offers valuable insight to researchers and teams involved in collaborations between different specialisms.

Dementia and Imagination is a national project led by the Dementia Services Development Centre at Bangor University. It explored how art might ‘improve the quality of life and community connectedness of people living with dementia’. It additionally sought to examine how art could challenge and change the public perception of dementia. The venture brought together the arts and humanities with the social sciences, which posed a challenge in terms of reconciling very different approaches to research methods. The project involved six UK universities and a wide range of civil society organizations. As different participating bodies had completely different philosophies about how to conduct the research owing to their ‘different epistemologies’, individual researchers had to become adaptable in their methods. Professor Andrew Newman of Newcastle University wrote, ‘Researchers are required to be flexible to undertake research that answers the aims that have been set and that satisfy the needs of various stakeholders’. Many team members involved in such an environment found this experimental approach rewarding. Early early-career researchers commented on how beneficial the experience of using both qualitative and quantitative methods was as a learning exercise. Ultimately, the project opted to not let a single approach dominate, favouring ‘epistemological pluralism’. Such an approach, the authors believe, is essential when working on solutions to complex contemporary societal challenges such as how dementia-friendly communities may be created.

This article makes a significant contribution to knowledge about how the methodology of large-scale multidisciplinary projects may be constructed. Anyone building research groups across different universities and between universities and community partners will strongly benefit from reading this unique account.

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09548963.2016.1241338

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Press & Media Relations Manager
email: newsroom@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter: @tandfnewsroom

Introducing Press Pass: journalist access to all Taylor & Francis Journals. Contact us for more details. 

, Oxford.

Women strongly under-represented in British broadcast media

Recent research in Journalism Practice has revealed a steady disparity between the numbers of male and female experts on British flagship TV and radio news. Despite a prevalence of female authority figures in Britain, authors Lis Howell and Jane B. Singer found that women were outnumbered by four to one.

The authors sought to understand the inequity by studying how experts were recruited for programmes, to better understand what defines an ‘expert’. The journalists interviewed noted the importance of status; experts were valued for their position in business, government or society, and for their ability to speak with confidence and credibility on air. Yet, as the authors highlighted, men continue to be more closely associated with these characteristics than women. As a Global Media Monitoring researcher study recently concluded, ‘women’s voices, experiences and expertise continue to be regarded by news industries as less important than those of men’. Hence women are persistently under-represented as ‘hard news’ reporters, more commonly connected to ‘soft topics’ such as health and lifestyle, and confined to less important lunchtime news broadcasts.

In attempting to explain the reasoning behind this, one male producer cited a ‘male-dominated public life’. The authors also uncovered a hesitancy among many women to commit to appearances in the media. Many journalists felt that women experts feared disapproval on controversial topics or being negatively judged as arrogant, pushy or unattractive. One female academic stated ‘academia often frowns on those who appear in the media’. Despite often being very well qualified, women are often reticent to be the most authoritative voice on a subject, needing reassurance before committing. This made producers’ drive to recruit female experts, and therefore offset the typical ‘white, over 40 man-in-tie’ expert, all the more difficult.

With an overwhelming lack of women in top roles, Howell & Singer call for greater attention to the issue, concluding ‘achieving greater gender parity across broadcast news requires a conscious and concerted effort informed by a deeper understanding of the nature of the problem and why it persists’.

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17512786.2016.1232173

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Press & Media Relations Manager
email: newsroom@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter: @tandfnewsroom

Introducing Press Pass: journalist access to all Taylor & Francis Journals. Contact us for more details. 

, Oxford.

Early marriage and pregnancy risk for adolescent Syrian refugees

Education and counselling are key to improving the lives of Syrian girls in Jordanian refugee camps, according to a new study. Writing in the journal Pathogens and Global Health, three current and former experts at the United Nations Population Fund outline the dire situation in which many young women in the Zaatari Camp find themselves. The Syrian crisis has left almost five million women of reproductive age without adequate sexual and reproductive health education.

The crisis in Syria is also the cause of another worrying trend: a dramatic increase in early marriage and pregnancy, which puts girls at high risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. As the authors explain: “Syrian refugees resort to child marriage as a common and appropriate response to ‘compelling circumstances,’ such as to gain economic security”.

In Jordan alone, there are 156,000 registered female refugees of reproductive age, of which 42,000 are aged between 12 and 17. “The situation of these adolescent girls is alarming,” the authors write. “They are forgotten and their voices are not heard, and their status as refugees increases their vulnerability.”

In addition to feeling pressured to marry, some girls see marriage for themselves as a way to lift restrictions on their movement and social lives, as well as a means of protection in a setting where traditional social systems have broken down.

Despite considerable efforts to prevent early pregnancies through family planning programmes and awareness campaigns, few girls can access these services – and even when they do, their choices and ability to make decisions is limited. As the authors observe: “Adolescents in the Zaatari camp are under pressure to marry and become mothers, they live in small, conservative communities, they are left with no options to continue their higher education and with no hope to become economically independent.”

To improve the lives of girls with seemingly few choices, the authors suggest that aid planning in Syrian refugee camps must take into account that discussing sexual and reproductive health is ‘a prohibited practice, especially for girls’. Aid agencies must implement ‘courageous’ education policies, taboos and traditions must be challenged, girls must take part in social and educational activities, and boys and men must be engaged. 

Ultimately, the aid community must do all it can to give young female Syrian refugees choices, for if they had any, ‘they would keep studying and playing as our own children do’.

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20477724.2016.1231834

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Press & Media Relations Manager
email: newsroom@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter: @tandfnewsroom

Introducing Press Pass: journalist access to all Taylor & Francis Journals. Contact us for more details. 

, Oxford.

Could honey bee brood be the future of food?

Could honey bee brood be the future of food?

With human population set to reach 9 billion by 2050, eating insects is gaining attention as a possible way to feed the world. A paper published in the Journal of Apicultural Research shows how honey bee brood – the larvae and pupae of drones – has great potential as a food source.

Bee brood is already eaten as a delicacy in many countries, including Mexico, Thailand and Australia. It has a nutty flavour with a crunchy texture when eaten cooked or dried, and is a versatile ingredient used in soups and egg dishes. It also has high nutritional value, similar to beef in terms of protein quality and quantity.

Beekeepers are accustomed to removing brood to manage Varroa mite, the most harmful parasite affecting honey bees worldwide. According to Professor Annette Bruun Jensen of the University of Copenhagen and her colleagues, this practice makes drone brood an abundant source of farmed insects with untapped potential for human consumption.

Brood farming has a number of advantages, including the relatively little arable space and low financial investment required to set up hives. Research on honey bee biology and breeding also has a long history compared to other candidates for insect farming.

But several challenges would need to be met for this method of farming to take off – none more so than in the harvesting of brood, which is very fragile and thus difficult to remove intact from the hive.

Storage, shelf life and safety are also important considerations. Due to their high fat content, larvae and pupae could go rancid if not properly removed from contact with oxygen. Yet research has shown that they can be frozen and stored for up to 10 months without severe loss or change of taste.

The food safety risks associated with bee brood are yet to be assessed. However, no cases of food poisoning from bee brood have ever been recorded, and the European Food Safety Authority has found no additional or specific risks associated with the production and consumption of insects compared to traditional livestock production.

Professor Bruun Jensen said: “Honey bees and their products are appreciated throughout the world. Honey bee brood and in particular drone brood, a by-product of sustainable Varroa mite control, can therefore pave the way for the acceptance of insects as a food in the western world.”

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00218839.2016.1226606

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Press & Media Relations Manager
email: newsroom@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter: @tandfnewsroom

Introducing Press Pass: journalist access to all Taylor & Francis Journals. Contact us for more details. 

, Oxford.

Learn lessons from European climate monitoring to make Paris Agreement a success, warn scientists

Scientists have warned that high hopes for the success of the Paris Agreement could be dashed if lessons aren’t learnt from the challenges and experiences of climate monitoring in Europe.

The long term success of the Agreement depends on the availability of well-designed and functioning monitoring and review mechanisms, according to a study published in the journal Climate Policy.

As the 22nd session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 22) in Marrakech draws to a close, researchers from the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at the University of East Anglia (UEA) and the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) stress that, without strong, credible monitoring and transparency procedures, national pledges to address climate change in the spirit of the 2015 Paris Agreement will not build sufficient global trust.

The study looks closely at the EU’s experience with monitoring national climate policies in order to understand what challenges may arise in ensuring transparency. The EU has one of the most advanced monitoring systems in the world – but it still encounters persistent challenges that, crucially, could jeopardize the implementation of the Paris Agreement. The international community should therefore draw on the EU’s valuable experiences and also difficulties in monitoring climate policies in order to develop the practice further.

The research identified that the EU’s current approach to monitoring climate policies – largely borrowed from monitoring greenhouse gases, which is a vastly different task – has not supported in depth learning and debate on the performance of individual policies. Other important obstacles include political concerns over the costs of reporting, control, and the perceived usefulness of the information produced.

Jonas Schoenefeld, the lead author, said: "An important part of the implementation of the Paris Agreement will hinge on whether political actors can muster the leadership in order to successfully navigate monitoring challenges at the international level. The EU’s experience shows that incorporating policies into NDCs should be seen as one step in a long journey to better knowledge of climate policies.”

The 2015 Paris Agreement marked a shift towards countries making emission reduction pledges known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and a new Transparency Framework (Article 13) requiring regular progress reports on pledges to address climate change. While the quick ratification of the Paris Agreement is a sign that the international community is eager to make progress, setting up a strong and effective transparency framework requires hard work for years to come.

Mr Schoenefeld stressed that the willingness of countries to remain engaged is vital: “A key strength of the Paris Agreement is that so many countries are part of it and are willing to engage. Disengagement or even withdrawal could therefore imperil the whole Agreement and have grave ramifications for the set-up of a strong monitoring system.”

Professor Mikael Hildén from the Finnish Environment Institute, who co-authored the study, said: "Monitoring is probably the most underestimated challenge in implementing the Paris Agreement. In the past, it has been seen as a technical, data gathering task. We show that it is anything but a mere reporting exercise.”

Professor Andrew Jordan from the Tyndall Centre, co-author, said: “Implementing more advanced monitoring at the international level will require substantial political efforts, resources, and leadership. In order to justify such investments to the public, care needs to be taken to ensure that monitoring information is used effectively to improve policy, rather than as a weapon to lay blame when things slip.”

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14693062.2016.1248887

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information, please contact:
Aaron Bennett, Taylor & Francis Group
Email: Aaron.Bennett@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter @tandfnewsroom

, Oxford.

Greater practitioner support needed for teenagers engaging in ‘sexting’

A new study published in the Journal of Youth Studies highlights a need for practitioners to discuss with teenagers safe ways to engage in so-called 'sexting', the sending of self-made, sexually explicit images sent via mobile phone or computers. The research uncovers a disparity between gendered perceptions of sexting, and what the perceived risks and consequences are.

Author Joris Van Ouytsel, together with his co-authors at the University of Antwerp in Belgium, questioned teenagers aged between 15 and 18 years old on which social media applications they most commonly used for sexting, what motivated them to engage in this sexual behaviour, and the perceived consequences of sending a sexually explicit photograph via digital media. A total of 57 adolescents (66.67% females) were recruited in two secondary school in Flanders, Belgium and invited to participate in 1 of 11 focus groups. These focus groups were part of the research of the Teen Digital Dating Study, a larger study of the effects of digital media on adolescents’ sexual and romantic relationship experiences.

When asked which social media applications were the most popular for sending sexually explicit photographs, the respondents mentioned smartphone applications such as Snapchat and WhatsApp. Facebook was seen as “not safe” due to being too “open” and too “direct” as the photographs could be accessed and shared more easily. The participants noted that one of the major advantages of Snapchat over other applications is that “you can send it and it disappears immediately. So that’s ideal”. However, some respondents were also aware that Snapchat is not free of risks and that it could still be exposed to others (e.g., by taking screenshots).

Although the respondents mentioned positive motivations for engaging in sexting, such as love or romantic interest, they also observed that some girls felt that they had to send sexting photographs for negative reasons, such as the fear of losing their boyfriends or because their romantic partners would plead or insist.

Across all focus groups, the greatest risk associated with sexting behaviour was the chance that the sexually explicit photographs would be forwarded to others. In 10 of 11 focus groups, respondents identified boys and not girls as the most likely to distribute a sexting photograph. It was also indicated that they thought there were almost no harmful consequences for leaking a sexually explicit photograph of a boy as opposed to a sexually explicit photograph of a girl.

The findings from this study lead to several implications for discussing sexting with adolescents, such as highlighting the need for sexting prevention efforts to focus on how adolescents cope with pressure, and subtle manipulation to engage in sexting. This could be tied in to a broader discussion about gender equality within sexual and romantic relationships, both online and offline.

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13676261.2016.1241865

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information, please contact:
Imogen Catling
Marketing Executive, Taylor & Francis Sociology & Law Journals 
Email: imogen.catling@tandf.co.uk

About the University of Antwerp

University of Antwerp

The University of Antwerp is a research university where pioneering, innovative research is conducted at an international level. Research and education are closely linked. Educational innovation is a constant focus, and special care is also taken to welcome and guide each of the 20,000 students spread across our nine faculties.

The University of Antwerp is not an island: we build bridges to secondary education, to industry and, by extension, to society as a whole. With over 5,000 members of staff, the University of Antwerp is one of the most important employers in Antwerp, Flanders’ largest city. 

For more information please contact:
Michel Walrave
michel.walrave@uantwerpen.be
+32 475 45 97 85

www.uantwerp.be

, Oxford.

Suicide prevention: reacting to the tell-tale signs

Can search engines save lives? Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers are working on an approach which would enable search engines to more effectively identify users who are at risk of suicide and provide them with information on where to find help.

Search engine queries not only reveal a lot about the user’s interests and predilections, they also contain information relating to their mood or state of health. In response to recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO), search engines like Google are already responding to search queries containing terms which imply that the user might be contemplating suicide by specifically drawing attention to counseling and other suicide prevention services. “The Internet is playing an increasingly significant role in suicide prevention,” says Dr. Florian Arendt of LMU’s Department of Communication Science and Media Research (IfKW). Indeed, several studies indicate that suicidal persons can be deterred from taking their lives when reminded of available help resources. In collaboration with his colleague Dr. Sebastian Scherr at the IfKW, Arendt has carried out a study on how the algorithms that search engines use to parse queries might be modified so as to ensure that they more effectively target remedial information to those at risk. The findings of the study recently appeared in the journal Health Communication.

In an earlier study, Arendt and Scherr showed that only 25% of the queries classified by Google as potentially suicide-related lead to the presentation of the Google “suicide prevention result” as recommended by the WHO. “In other words, search engines are not optimally using their potential to help those who are at risk,” says Sebastian Scherr. In their latest paper, the two researchers develop an approach which seeks to make better use of the context in which potentially suicide-related search terms appear.

Epidemiological studies repeatedly have shown that suicidal behavior is strongly influenced by environmental factors. This is reflected, for example, by the fact that suicide numbers peak at particular times – for example, on certain family holidays as well as on particular weekdays. Taking the word ‘poisoning’ as a representative “suicide-related” search term, Arendt and Scherr analyzed temporal patterns of its use in queries submitted to Google. Strikingly, they found that the fraction of queries containing the term peaked exactly on days on which the actual incidence of suicide was particularly high. “This suggests that, on these peak days at least, the thresholds for the dispatch of information related to suicide prevention should be reset,” says Scherr. The authors go on to propose that the corresponding algorithms should be regularly updated in response to new research findings, in order to take objective factors that increase the risk of suicide more effectively into account. By modifying their settings accordingly, Google and other search engines could make an even greater contribution to suicide prevention, the researchers conclude. “In this context, providers of search engines have a specific social responsibility,” says Arendt.

Provided by: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10410236.2016.1224451

About Taylor & Francis Group

Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies, universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life.  As one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Science, and Technology and Medicine.

From our network of offices in Oxford, New York, Philadelphia, Boca Raton, Boston, Melbourne, Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors, societies and authors and tailored, efficient customer service to our library colleagues.

For more information please contact:
Jodie Bell, Press & Media Relations Manager
email: newsroom@tandf.co.uk
Follow us on Twitter: @tandfnewsroom

Introducing Press Pass: journalist access to all Taylor & Francis Journals. Contact us for more details. 

, Oxford.

Are family relationships at the root of financial risk-taking?

Are family relationships at the root of financial risk-taking?

What makes some young adults behave in ways that have the potential to harm themselves or those around them? Many studies have examined the complex psychology of financial risk-taking, but new research from Cogent Economics & Finance suggests that financial risk-taking in young adults, including going into debt or breaking the law, could be rooted in their childhood relationships with parents.

This study, led by researchers at Oklahoma State University, used the domain-specific risk-taking scale (DOSPERT) to assess five areas of risk-taking, namely ethical, social, financial, recreational and health. The authors also measured a personality trait known as “sensation-seeking”, which has previously been shown to predict risk-taking and family dynamics, quantifying positive and negative child-parent relationships.

The study found that negative childhood interactions with their mother predicted financial risk-taking among men. Ethical risk-taking among men was predicted by negative childhood interactions with their father, and with disinhibition (enjoying the feeling of not being in control). For women, ethical risk-taking was linked to negative childhood interactions with their father, low positive interactions with their mother and their overall susceptibility to boredom.

Interestingly, results suggested that parent-child relationships did not predict the other three types of risk-taking (health, social and recreational). The researchers suggest that these kinds of risk-taking may be linked more with the influence of peers, and they argue that further studies are needed establish the extent to which parent and peer relationships affect risk-taking. It had previously been shown that risk-taking among young children is linked to their interactions with their parents, but this new article shows that family relationships in childhood continue to have an impact in adulthood. With potentially life-changing consequences arising from such risk-taking, understanding what causes it could ultimately result in better outcomes for those most likely to be susceptible to it.

The article, Financial and ethical risk-taking by young adults: A role for family dynamics, published in the open access journal Cogent Economics & Finance, is free to read and download via this permanent link

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS
When referencing the article: Please include Journal title, author, published by Taylor & Francis and the following statement:

* Read the full article online:http://www.cogentoa.com/article/10.1080/23322039.2016.1232225

About Cogent OA

Cogent OA is an open access publisher of scholarly research committed to offering a truly author-centered service. Our aim is to help researchers share their ideas and discoveries as widely and as effectively as possible.

We offer all the traditional services such as thorough peer review and high quality online presentation, but are adding to these new ideas to help ensure our authors' work has maximum global impact.

As part of the Taylor & Francis Group – an Informa business – we are building on solid foundations and maintain the traditional values and high standards of an organization with more than 200 years of experience serving the research community.

For more information, please contact:

Craig Teall, Marketing Executive – Cogent OA
craig.teall@CogentOA.com

www.CogentOA.com